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Species Description

Fowler's Toad

Bufo fowleri

Species Image


Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae


Brown or gray, occasionally greenish or reddish, with a light stripe down its spine. Fowler's Toad has three or more warts in each big dark splotch on its back. Its chest and belly are whitish in color, unspeckled with black or brown. This toad reaches 5 - 7 cm (2 - 3 in) in length as an adult. The parotoid glands touch the cranial crests in this species.

Life Cycle

Fowler's Toad breeds from March to June in warm parts of its range and somewhat later in the cooler mountain regions. The female lays up to 7,000 eggs in shallow water. The male fertilizes the eggs externally. The eggs hatch a week later. Tadpoles transform into adults in one to two months. Like most toads, Fowler's Toad is most active at night. It is insectivorous, meaning that it eats insects almost exclusively. Females grow to be larger than males. Fowler's Toad is found in lawns and gardens to wooded areas, in much the same habitat as the American Toad. In the mountains and northern Piedmont it can have an uneven distribution. It prefers sandy or loose soil so that it can burrow during the day.


Fowler's Toad Region Map Fowler's Toad is found throughout most of Georgia, but is absent in the southeastern corner of the state.

Conservation Status

This is a common toad throughout its range. Like all toads, it requires shallow water to breed. It will not be found where topsoil and leaf litter are absent.

Similar Species

In central Georgia, the Fowler's Toad, Southern Toad and Oak Toad may be found in the same location. The Southern Toad has very pronounced knobs on its cranial crests and its warts are larger than those of Fowler's Toad. The adult Oak Toad is much, much smaller than Fowler's Toad. Fowler's Toad has more warts of more even size than the American Toad. In north Georgia, Fowler's Toads and American Toads sometimes interbreed, and offspring from this mix can be extremely difficult to identify.